Everybody could have w problem with pipes

Dodane: 28-06-2016 09:29
Everybody could have w problem with pipes plumbing Fulham

Plumber - what does it mean?

A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times, and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum",

The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes4 and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths.5 In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall".6 Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.



Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumber


Wikipedia about elbow pipes

An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.

Elbows are categorized based on various design features as below:

Long Radius (LR) Elbows ? radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter
Short Radius (SR) Elbows ? radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter
90 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 90°
60 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 60°
45 Degree Elbow ? where change in direction required is 45°

A 90 degree elbow is also called a "90 bend" or "90 ell". It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow in the pipe. It is used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a "quarter bend". A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead. It can also attach to rubber with stainless steel clamps. It is available in many materials like silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, etc. The main application of an elbow (90 degree) is to connect hoses to valves, water pressure pumps, and deck drains. These elbows can be made from tough nylon material or NPT thread.

A 45 degree elbow is also called a "45 bend" or "45 ell". It is commonly used in water supply facilities, food industrial pipeline networks, chemical industrial pipeline networks, electronic industrial pipeline networks, air conditioning facility pipeline, agriculture and garden production transporting system, pipeline network for solar energy facility, etc.

Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius variants. The short radius elbows have a center-to-end distance equal to the Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches, while the long radius is 1.5 times the NPS in inches. Short elbows are widely available, and are typically used in pressurized systems.

Long elbows are typically used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern. They are readily available in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for DWV, sewage and central vacuums, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and copper for 1950s to 1960s houses with copper drains.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piping_and_plumbing_fitting


Valves - where do we use them?

Valves are found in virtually every industrial process, including water and sewage processing, mining, power generation, processing of oil, gas and petroleum, food manufacturing, chemical and plastic manufacturing and many other fields.

People in developed nations use valves in their daily lives, including plumbing valves, such as taps for tap water, gas control valves on cookers, small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers, safety devices fitted to hot water systems, and poppet valves in car engines.

In nature there are valves, for example one-way valves in veins controlling the blood circulation, and heart valves controlling the flow of blood in the chambers of the heart and maintaining the correct pumping action.

Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever, pedal or wheel. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature, or flow. These changes may act upon a diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers.

More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external input (i.e., regulating flow through a pipe to a changing set point) require an actuator. An actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valve